North Borneo | The best Under sea and Tropical rain forest
History of This province
Posting date : 2016-07-01 23:52:53 | author : syam
According to legends, native Tidungs established their kingdom in Tarakan around 1076 CE. After moving their capital several times over the centuries, in 1571 CE they settled their kingdom on the eastern coast of Tarakan, apparently already under influence of Islam. Dutch colonial interests first explored the island in 1863 when oil seepages were discovered. In 1905 an oil concession was granted to Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij, a predecessor to Royal Dutch Shell.
One year later oil production began with a yield of over 57,928 barrels of oil per year. Production continued to increase and in the 1920s Tarakan yielded over 5 million barrels a year, a third of the total oil production in the whole Dutch East Indies. The oil produced here had a paraffin base instead of the usual asphalt base. This made Tarakan oil an important source of fuel in great demand, especially from Japan. During the beginning of the Second World War in the Pacific, Tarakan was an obvious target for the Japanese. They wanted Tarakan for two reasons: the presence of a rich oil field and to use it as a strategic air base from which further attacks could be launched.
In the first battle of Tarakan on January 11–12, 1942, the Japanese invasion fleet defeated the Dutch and took control of Tarakan. Following the Dutch surrender, Tarakan's inhabitants suffered under Japan's occupation. The large number of Japanese troops stationed on the island caused food shortages and many civilians suffered from malnutrition as a result. During the occupation, the Japanese transported some 600 labourers to Tarakan from Java. The Japanese also forced an estimated 300 Javanese women to work as "comfort women".
Tarakan's value to the Japanese evaporated with the rapid advance of Allied forces. The last Japanese oil tanker left Tarakan in July 1944, and heavy Allied air raids later in the year destroyed the island's oil production and storage facilities. Allies finally captured Tarakan following the second battle of Tarakan from May 1 – June 21, 1945. The Allied force responsible for capturing Tarakan was centred on the veteran Australian 26th Brigade Group. Following the Indonesian revolution, Tarakan became part of the new republic. In 1981, Tarakan was granted a city charter, at that time one of four cities in East Kalimantan, along with Samarinda, Balikpapan and Bontang. After North Kalimantan was established as a province in 2012, Tarakan became the sole city within the new province.
** Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarakan,_North_Kalimantan.
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